The culprit of a crime was forced to wear this mask in public, the embarrassment acted both as punishment and a deterrent. The decoration was very ornate and unique to each craftsman. It is not understood if pattern is linked to the crime. Women accused for being dressed inappropriately would have been subject to this punishment. The idea of ‘respectability’ was hugely important in these societies and the basis of many punishments was embarrassment or tarnishing of reputation.